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Archive of previous issues (Journal Doprava a spoje ISSN 1336-7676)

II/2016 (Volume IV)

Title of article:
Channel Coding in Optical Communication Systems
Author:
Viktor Durcek, Michal Kuba, Milan Dado
Abstract:
In this paper, an overview of various types of error-correcting codes is present. Three generations of forward error correction methods used in optical communication systems are listed and described. Forward error correction schemes proposed for use in future high-speed optical networks can be found in the third generation of codes.

Title of article:
Trends and Concepts of Development of The Logistic System of Kazakhstan
Author:
Aisha Muratovna Musabekova, Paweł Droździel, Lucia Madleňáková
Abstract:
The world integration tendency goes on the way of creation of the integrated macrologistic systems, including transport and logistic systems of the country, logistic centers, terminal complexes and other links of the logistic system. The logistics has already gone far beyond the national borders of the states. The interstate and transnational macrologistic systems, designed to facilitate traffic of information, goods, equity, and people through borders are rapidly growing. Paper focuses on the analysis and trends of development of the logistics system of Kazakhstan.

Title of article:
Market Access in Freight Forwarding and Responsibility of Freight Forwarder
Author:
Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Michaela Mrníková, Lenka Komačková
Abstract: The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. The paper highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples.

Title of article:
Benefits of Autonomously Driven Vehicles
Author:
Vladimír Rievaj, Lenka Mokričková, František Synák
Abstract:
The vehicles with high grades have the embedded systems which are essential for the operation of a vehicle with higher standard of safety. This way road transport can significantly closer to the safety of rail and air transport be-cause the error of driver is the main cause of the accident. The expected benefits of autonomous vehicles are their ability to observe small distances between the vehicles. Based on the information from stationary sources and vehi-cles running near adjust their route and speed of travel so as to minimize delays in congestions. This ensures greater continuity of driving, reducing consumption of vehicles and therefore the production of greenhouse gases from road transport. If the vehicles are capable of autonomous driving is achieved higher average speed and they have been removed the mandatory brakes within driving. It achieves the higher performance of individual vehicles and thus fewer number of vehicles on the roads and less traffic congestion.

Title of article:
Municipal Transport - Infrastructure
Author:
Iwona Rybicka, Paweł Droździel, Jacek Caban, Radovan Madleňák
Abstract:
One of the most important problems that we face in Poland, is a low degree of safety connected with municipal transport infrastructure. It stands out from numerous factors and conditions. That is why numerous actions aimed at improving transport safety are being undertaken. One of them is improved safety of vehicles that are directly connected with municipal transport safety.

I/2016 (Volume IV)

Title of article: The Importance of Knowledge Transfer to Industry
Author: Emília Madudová
Abstract: The paper examines the specific knowledge universities transfer to industry, reflecting to creative industry needs. As results shows, the most asked alumni competences should be tacit knowledge and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking influence the creativity. Creativity is often defined as the ability to develop new and useful ideas, but in deep literature review, we can see few irregularities and different definitions of creativity. The paper also evaluates the importance of creativity from business environment point of view and from the creative industry perspective and creative firm owners. As point of view. Another key finding is, that to educate creative people will be one of the key competitive advantage, because mainly the ability to create and disseminate knowledge is often at the heart of the organization's competitive advantage not only in creative industry, but in transport industry as well.

Title of article: Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
Authors: Andrej Novák, Nikolas Žáčik
Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of a study of modern telecommunication technology in the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network. The article deals with the integration of modern telecommunication technology into the still developing sector of aeronautical telecommunication. The ATN is a data communications inter-network that provides its users a robust and reliable Air/Air, Air/Ground and Ground/Ground communications service.

Title of article: The Effectivness of Suporting Public Passenger Transport from Public Funds
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Peter Varjan
Abstract: The paper deals with the issue of efficiency of financial support for public passenger transport from public funds from the perspective of improving road safety. The aim is to verify the hypothesis that financing public passenger transport from public funds is a significant tool to influence the number of passengers carried by individual automobile transport, and thus it can be a tool for influencing road safety in a particular territory. The first part of the paper analyses the sources for financial support of public passenger transport. The last part analyses possible impacts of financing public passenger transport on the road safety in relation to the specified hypothesis.  

Title of article: The role of human element in aviation safety
Authors: Justyna Reut, Jacek Caban, Bożena Widzicka
Abstract: Each industry is characterized that without human factor will not be able to function. This also applies to aviation, which focuses mainly on human labour. This sense of security what provides staff workers, on what the shoulders are the duty of care not to create a hazard before, during and after the flight. On the civil and military airports they employ staff not only flying but also ground handling. These include: auditors, managers flights, technicians, ground handling runway and apron, cargo department employees, firefighters and other emergency services, personnel service to passengers in the terminals, customs, security, and even people like hawkers, law enforcement officers, managers and managers of the various sectors. Each of these professions is responsible for a different aspect of the airport, and is necessary for the proper conduct of flight operations and passenger services and ensuring security. In the largest airports with lots of terminals with dense air traffic performance characteristics of employed people, the variety of tasks, and thus the level of complexity of the operation resemble a small town. In order for it to function efficiently is all you need is a good organization, through which cooperation between all departments of work is smooth and provides quick action in dangerous situations. Each employee should know their role and perform the desired function best, so to fill up the board and the workforce to reliably performed its duties and to the performance of their work brought economic profits.

Title of article: 160 km/h on the Highway
Authors: Vladimír Rievaj, Lenka Mokričková
Abstract: The speed limit on the highways of Slovak Republic is 130 km/h. It is recently considered the increase of this speed on some sections to the 1600 km/h. However this increase brings with it a substantial negative impacts. On the basis of its evaluation appears to increase this speed to 160 km/h as inappropriate

Title of article: Value Chains as the Tools for Differentiation of Offer in Services
Authors: Alexandra Rovňanová, Mária Rostášová, Marek Valica
Abstract: Customers are generally characterized by having different requirements in selection from the product offer. They are interested in the so-called differentiated offers on the market because the differentiation of services is based on providing higher added value to the customers in comparison with competitors. One of the ways of possible solution is the use of value chain which enables company to find the opportunities to differentiate its product portfolio. The value chain can be used for finding the sources of differentiation and suitable placement in a customer value chain, for identifying a way to create the value of competition as well as for ensuring of the most profitable placement in supply and distribution value chains. Contribution focuses on the possibility of using diagnostics of value chains in services and it also presents a draft sequence of the diagnostic phases applied in the evaluation of activities/processes contained in the value chains. An important part of this contribution is connected with the ideas about the completion of traditional value chain with virtual value chain. It presents the proposals to discussion which should currently integrate the virtual world of information into further value chains of service company activities.

II/2015 (Volume III)

Title of article:
European Transport Corridors and North Adriatic Ports
Author
s: Helena Bínová, Martin Jurkovič
Abstract:
From the ports in the northern Adriatic Sea (ports of Ravenna, Venezia, Trieste, Koper, Rijeka) a route from European ports of North Sea to the Far East is shorter by about 2000 nautical miles. It means a reduction of 6 to 8 days in shipping. These ports are reachable from commercial and industrial centers of Central and Eastern Europe. An assessment of the current situation and future development of the European transport corridors North - South, including possible inter-connection by multimodal corridors Baltic ports in the north and Adriatic ports in the south, is included in this paper. This corridor is one of the ten basic corridors included in the new conception of the TEN-T European transport network with the assumption of financial support from the EU in the period of 2014-2020. Further, the paper also includes an analysis of a modal assessment (Modal Split) of transport connections of Central Europe with the Far East. The heart of the paper is a proposal of connection of chosen seaports that serve as logistics terminals to current European multimodal corridors and further to proposed multimodal corridors.

Title of article:
Laser scanning optimisation process in mountainous terrain
Author:
Mária Mrázová
Abstract:
Digital terrain model is applicable for many possibilities related to aerial works by use of photogrammetry or laser scanning of the earth’s surface. For the purpose of this research we consider just laser scanning used for work in difficult mountain terrain. The terrain of the Slovak Republic has many high hills and it signifies more complex flight planning, as laser scanning is usually flown in lower heights than photogrammetry. Moreover, as lower height is above terrain than the overlap between subsequent LIDAR strips is also lower. This situation can also lead towards the negative value in extreme instances. This paper also describes the most effective way for flight planning during laser scanning of mountain terrain by comparison of two different technologies from operational and economical point of view.

Title of article:
Value of Time Savings as a Factor in Deciding on Route Choice
Authors:
Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Lenka Komačková, Michaela Mrníková
Abstract:
The paper deals with the definition of time savings as a factor in deciding on route choice of a carrier whether to use toll road network. The first part of the paper describes a history of road infrastructure charging in the EU Member States and the USA. Next part analyses the factors affecting decision-making process of a carrier when considering which road infrastructure to use – toll or non-tolled roads. The paper also identifies the value of time savings as a significant factor in route choice.

Title of article:
Airlines in Poland
Authors:
Patrycja Rut, Tomasz Łusiak, Andrej Novák, Nikolas Žáčik
Abstract:
In this article is described the concept of the airline. This article describes the different types of airline concepts which can occur in the airline market. The main topic of this research is description of all Polish airlines in detail. You can find in this topic description of each Polish airline also with a fleet and departures what were main attributes for this research and for determining of airline model of each Polish company.


I/2015 (Volume III)

Title of article: Low-Cost Carriers – Business Model Development
Author
s: Antonín Kazda, Mária Mrázová
Abstract: This paper deals with low-cost airline business model that has overwhelmingly been the favoured mode of the airline. Fast-changing aviation industry forces low-cost carriers to transform their initial business model and therefore, author stresses further opportunities for the expansion of these models to another direction with more concentration on customer´s needs as well as company´s operational and financial benefits. One of the most important partial results is analysis of existing low-cost carrier’s business models, describe their historical evolution and propose future modifications to stay competitive and profitable.

Title of article: Operator – Pilot Learning Success With Aviation Ergatic System Control
Authors: Pavol Kurdel, Tobiáš Lazar, Alena Novák Sedláčková
Abstract: The unique mission of operator – pilot during the performed flight lies in the responsibility for selected aircraft position doctrine along determine flight trajectory determined by programme. The mutuality of the relationship of the operator - pilot (OP) and the aircraft completes the image of an ergatic system [7] in which the OP is bound to the object (aircraft), makes decisions in complex flight situations, optimises the transfer of the aircraft into a regular flight. OP also decides about the change to manual aircraft control, which is the main feature of a selective method of flight ergatic system along determined flight trajectory control. The paper shows a method of determination and evaluation of operator – pilot with the aim to obtain quality in successful fulfilment of aviation ergatic system.

Title of article: Comparison of R&D within the Visegrad countries
Authors: Radovan Madleňák, Mário Al Kassiri
Abstract: Knowledge is learning, as short explanation meaning. Knowledge is gained by long-term experience, continual learning, as well as by finding the right solutions for the issue. The longer we take the time for solving and analysing the issue the better given solution can be obtained. Knowledge is very closely linked with creativity, as Einstein had mentioned, Creativity has no boundaries, but it is a process that requires knowledge of the problem and longer term experience according to research. The knowledge economy is very important for growing economies. Countries which are rich of raw material resources yet don't need to be countries which are part of developed countries. This might be caused by not supporting the ideas of innovations, education, or research and development. Simply we can say that growing economics is based on knowledge.

Title of article: Providing Transport Services Based on the Gross Cost and Net Cost Contracts
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Peter Varjan, Lenka Komačková
Abstract: The paper deals with an issue of the impact of a contract form choice on providing public transport services and its influence on a scope of transport services. The first part of the paper describes the current situation in selected countries and then various contract forms. It also analyses the existing risks and possibilities for their allocation between the contracting parties in the field of public transport provision. Further part of the paper describes an approach of public service operators to net cost contracts and gross costs contracts.

Title of article: Development of courier services in Poland
Authors: Ewelina Porębska, Jacek Caban, Mateusz Sopoćko
Abstract: The article presents the genesis of courier services in Poland, since the first such businesses in 1982. Courier companies in Poland are relatively short on the market, holding the prominent place in the economy of the country. The courier services in comparison with the countries of Western Europe are still in the development stage. After 2000 began the process of merger of best organised national courier companies by the largest global companies. In the article are presented factors affecting development of courier service in Poland, as well as the changes, which occurred within a few years, such as the level of employment, enterprises operating range and their generated revenue.


II/2014 (Volume II)

Title of article: Effect Of Injection Advance Angle On Auto-Ignition Delay And Response Of Ad3.152 Ur Engine
Author
s: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experimental investigations into the effect of injection advance angle in the AD3.152UR engine on auto-ignition delay time and engine response coefficient value. In the tests, the engine operated under the full load characteristics and was fuelled by commercial diesel oil. The injection advance angle ranged αww∈<13, 21> CA deg. The tests aimed to assess the engine ability to adapt to variable load conditions.

Title of article: Defining Standardized Quality Level in Suburban Bus Transport
Authors: Vladimír Konečný, Mária Kostolná
Abstract: The article deals with the possibilities of standardizing the quality level of suburban bus transport services. The procedures respect the legislative requirements which are valid in the Slovak Republic. The proposed theoretical methods are applied to specific measurement results of expectation and perception of the quality by the passengers in a significant transport hub of northern Slovakia, the region of Žilina. The findings will be applied in development of the standardization quality level in suburban bus transport to its anchoring into the service contract between self-governing region and operator of bus transport. This approach has not yet been applied in the Slovak Republic.

Title of article: Non Directional Beacons Checking
Authors: Ján Pitor, Filip Škultéty, Karol Götz
Abstract: This paper aims to familiarize experts from other fields with issues of flight check of Non Directional Beacon (NDB) and its assessment. The AT-940 Automatic Flight Inspection System and the aircraft PIPER SENECA are described followed by flight check specifications and procedures. Evaluated were the coverage of NDB Z, NDB ZLA located at Žilina airport and Standard Instrument Approach Procedure for runway 06. The results of evaluation are in paragraph 4. The paper is based on project “Centre of excellence for Air Transport” focused on the impact of air transport on environment photogrammetry, surveillance of electromagnetic compatibility of radio navigation aids and radio communication equipment.

Title of article: Competitiveness of Enterprises in Polish SME Sector
Authors: Anna Wolak-Tuzimek, Elżbieta Noworol-Luft, Radosław Luft
Abstract: Growth factors of competitiveness are presented empirically. Conditions of competitiveness are determined by internal factors, dependent on enterprises themselves, and by a wide range of internal factors, dependent on the macroeconomic environment. Analysis of statistics concerning 2004-2011, collected as part of the author's research, leads to the conclusion that enterprises gain competitive advantage by low pricing and high quality of their products. A growing importance of quality as a factor determining enterprise competitiveness can also be noted.


I/2014 (Volume II)

Title of article: Comparative Assessment of CI Engine Response
Author
s: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The response of the piston internal combustion engine provides an important indicator to assess the engine ability to adapt to constantly varying load conditions in its operation. It is the main criterion by which engines powering automotive vehicles are evaluated. It also affects road safety. The engine response depends on the profile of the curve that shows changes in the engine torque as a function of the crankshaft rotational speed. The paper presents a comparison of CI engines representing different generations with respect to constructional level. The engines that underwent comparison were equipped with the fuel system with a rotary injection pump and with Common Rail fuel system.

Title of article: Fuel Impact on the Response of AD3.152 UR Engine
Authors: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The paper presents results of investigations into the AD3.152 UR engine running on five fuels: commercial diesel oil DO, rapeseed oil fatty acid methyl esters FAME and their blends B10 (90% DO + 10% FAME), B20 (80% DO + 20% FAME), B30 (70% DO + 30% FAME). During the tests, the engine operated in accordance with the full load characteristics. Those characteristics were used to determine the engine response. The paper provides an assessment of the impact of the type of plant-derived fuel on the engine response.

Title of article: Software Architecture of an Information System for Aviation Broker Center
Authors: Gregor Krajčovič, Silvia Horňáková
Abstract: This article describes an information system concept designed to provide large amounts of geospatial data to the public. It addresses specific software design challenges, including wide computational power and storage scalability and unclear definition of stakeholders. It defines functional, security and performance requirements and provides a conceptual system design proposal.

Title of article: Different Allocation Systems
Author
: Mária Letanovská
Abstract: Based on the London´s airports example it is obvious that there are differences between 3rd level airports. If the same coordination system would be introduced within various coordinated airports it could lead to various results. The results of analysis of intra-EU route data indicate that larger aircraft have been used at the 3rd level airports and there is no strong evidence of inefficient slot hoarding at these airports, not only before but also after the EC’s recognition of secondary slot trading. In contrast, the analysis of slot trading at Heathrow and Gatwick show that slot trading has taken place more likely within alliance and the chances have been very small for carriers to obtain slots from their actual or potential competitors. For the time being, there may be no need for additional regulatory interventions into secondary slot trading as there is little evidence of inefficient slot hoarding. However, the scarce opportunity of slot trading may lead to less intense competition and then to less efficient use of slots in the long run.

Title of article: Choosing the Suitable Method for Multimodal Logistics Object Location in the Slovak Republic and Setting up the Criteria Matrix
Authors: Ondrej Stopka, Ivana Šimková
Abstract: This paper deals with the choosing of a suitable method for multimodal logistics object location in the Slovak Republic. The paper also describes several methods concerning the multimodal logistics object location in particular area, determines the crucial method related to this issue and presents setting up the criteria matrix for the needs of this object location in the Slovak Republic.


II/2013 (Volume I)

Title of article: Efficient Transport System in Urban Environment
Author: Marian Gogola
Abstract: The current cities have problem with function of their transport infrastructure mainly for the reason of congestion and the increasing trend of individual car usage. The call for solving and proposing the efficient transport systems occurs due the fact of mobility condition reduction in the urban environment. Therefore this paper deals with focusing on the topic of efficient transport system with accent to evaluation of single transport means and their impact on the urban environment. The two parameters are proposed the Capacity Index (CI) and the Vehicle Emission Pollutant Index (VEPI) which indices how efficient the transport systems are in first case in transport infrastructure capacity, second in environmental issue.

Title of article: SWOT analysis of the Slovak inland waterway transport
Author: Romana Hricová
Abstract: The paper deals with SWOT analysis of Slovak rivers. Although Slovak Republic is situated in the Central Europe, waterways are relatively short and not branched. Inland waterway includes commercial, sporting and tourist navigations. Commercial navigation is limited by flow volume and length of floating period. For commercial navigation have Danube, Váh and Bodrog the best conditions. All three navigable rivers do not allow maximum stable immergence use of actual vessels during the whole year. Navigable conditions (curve radiuses, fairway width, navigable depth, flow rate, flowage) are changeable during the year..

Title of article: The Increasing the Safety of Railway Crossings
Authors: Eva Nedeliaková, Ivan Nedeliak, Martin Búda
Abstract: This article is focused on improving safety at railway crossings and points of active and passive safety features. By following these general safety rules we can reduce or eliminate the risks that increasingly affect the right of railway crossings. The article describes redundant lock crossing time, which unfavourably affects the rail crossing accidents and the solution, which eliminates this factor. The paper is supported by the VEGA Agency by the Project 1/0188/13 „Quality factors of integrated transport system in the effective provision of public transport services in the context of globalisation“, that is solved at Faculty of Operations and Economics of Transport and Communication, University of Žilina.

Title of article: Evaluation of Effectiveness of Regional Airports in Central Europe by Data Envelope Analysis
Authors: Ivana Stryčeková, Anna Tomová
Abstract: In the paper we evaluate economic efficiency of 20 regional airports in Central Europe (Bratislava capital airport including) within 2004 – 2010 using input oriented data envelope analysis (DEA) with constat return on scale to identify super efficiency score. The paper results contribute to airport economic benchmarking literature which is still insufficient just for airports of regional nature. Covering 12 economic inputs and outputs parameters our research revealed Bratislava airport within the sample analyzed as efficient all the period analyzed which may be used as a supportive argument when stating development strategy for Bratislava airport.


I/2013 (Volume I)

Title of article: Optimizing of Fuel Costs by Using Information System
Author: Dušan Halaj
Abstract: The paper deals with the possibility of fuel consumption reduction with the utilization of information system, which can be acquired by carrier for each vehicle. The charges in the paper are calculated without the utilization of information system and without the fuel consumption reduction and with the utilization of information system and with the fuel consumption reduction.

Title of article: The measurement of contact surface of dunnage bag used for cargo securing in different gaps between cargo
Authors: Juraj Jagelčák, Ján Vrábel, Matej Pauliak
Abstract: This article provides comparison between the measured values of dunnage bag restraining forces and calculated values of restraining forces according to the draft version of Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code) for the dunnage bag of dimensions 60x120 cm and maximum filling pressure 0,2 bar.

Title of article:
The Analysis of Safety on Polish Roads between 2000 - 2010
Authors: Marek Jaskiewicz, Rafał S. Jurecki
Abstract: This article provides an assessment of the security situation on Polish roads. Statistical data on road accidents that occurred in different provinces in late 2000 - 2010 have been analysed and the attention has been drawn to the differences in the number of road accidents recorded between them. The analysis of accident statistics and the effects they had on particular provinces have been made. They were presented as for Świętokrzyskie province as compared to other provinces.

Title of article: The Genesis and Metamorphoses of Risk
Authors: Tomáš Klieštik, Miloš Birtusz
Abstract: Each business activity and also an individual person face risk every day. But what is risk? People have different attitudes to risk. Natural survival instincts make some people use all possible means to avoid injury or loss. These decisions are not decisions but more of inner instincts of survival. If we move from an individual to an organization, standards and rules become more complex and more formal. When activities become more complex, instinctive and institutional patterns of behaviour forming the basis of personal risk management become inadequate and decisions become more complicated. The theory of risk has been a subject dealt with in many available books by domestic and foreign authors and risk management as such has been a subject of detail research. We can even claim it constitutes an independent part of the theory of economy.  

Title of article: The Risk Analysis in Public Passenger Transport
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Katarína Kilianová
Abstract: The paper deals with the risks related to providing public passenger transport. The risks are divided into two groups: cost and revenue risks. The paper describes possibilities of risk allocation among contracting parties when providing transport services.

Title of article: Possible Repair Methods of Concrete Retaining Wall
Authors: Nicolas Saliba, Ladislav Bartuška
Abstract: Concrete and reinforced concrete retaining walls in terms of proposal and workmanship in comparison with many other structures can be considered less demanding. Unfortunately, this fact does not apply every time and we have to solve compromise proposals for remediation. Calculation of load would also not be problematic even for less ambitious structural engineer. Also, design principles, and most simple form should not bother anyone. The ways of remediation described in this article can be applied to other concrete structures, whether they are retaining walls and noise barriers along roads or railways.

Title of article: Measuring the Braking Distance in Dependence from the Momentary Vehicle Weight
Authors: Branislav Šarkan, Lukáš Holeša, Peter Ivánek
Abstract: The braking distance is one of the most important features of the braking system of a vehicle during its operation. The distance depends on many factors related to technical part of the vehicle, road surface or the driver. This paper focuses on the examination of the impact of the momentary weight of the vehicle on its braking distance. It aims at explaining the issue through practical tests and drawing conclusions for further research and practical application in expert activities.

Title of article: The Application of Automatic Identification Technologies by the Czech Post
Authors: Daniel Zeman, Petra Juránková, Libor Švadlenka
Abstract: This article deals with the question of practical use of automatic identification technologies in postal sector, with special focus on using barcode technologies and radio frequency identification in Czech Post. After introductory section, which is aimed at description of current situation and analysis of crucial factors of choosing automatic identification technologies, there are subchapters discussing the theoretical base of both technologies, as well as their practical use in postal sector. In the part of practical application of both identification technologies is specified the basic structure of barcodes used by Czech Post and also the description of international project UNEX, which deals with the measurement of the quality aspects of selected postal products and services. Concluding part contains a brief outline of possible radio frequency identification technology application.

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