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Archive of previous issues (Journal Doprava a spoje ISSN 1336-7676)

I/2019 (Volume VII)

Title of article: Influence of logistics system optimization on a company value

Authors: Eva Adámiková, Tatiana Čorejová,  Viliam Mojský,  Mykhailo Dobroselskyi

Abstract: The value of a company is influenced by many factors. It depends on how we evaluate the methods we use and what data we have for the calculation. It is also important for what purpose we will calculate the company value. However, the company's management decisions, their strategy and overall direction have a significant impact on the value of the business. In the article we will deal with the impact on the value of a business's optimization of the company's transport network. Also, whether optimization affects more revenue method or equity method.

Title of article: Automation of Handling Systems in the Container Terminals of Maritime Ports
Authors: Andrej Dávid
Customer´s preferences in the choice of a particular device is in many cases due to the attractiveness of this device. This means that customers are willing to travel longer distances to larger business centres with higher attractiveneAutomation of handling systems in the container terminals of maritime ports has become one of the most important changes that happened in maritime transport since the first voyage of a container vessel in 1956. Nowadays, new automated terminals are being built in the world. Most of them are located in Europe, then in North America and the Far East. Automated guided vehicles, automated straddle carriers or automated stacking cranes have replaced handling devices that were manipulated and were controlled by port workers in the container terminals. The basic goal of the paper is to focus on the advantages of this progressive system that is based on the increase of the output of the container terminals, the reduction of downtimes or accidents during handling of containers.

Title of article:
Cost Analysis of Queuing System of Postal Office
Authors: Silvia Ďutková, Dominika Hoštáková, Stanislava Turská, Jana Kurotová, Pawel Droźdiel
The paper displays cost analysis of queuing system of particular post office. The selected Post Office is Zilina 1 Post Office in Slovakia. Post office Zilina 1 provides service to almost 4 000 companies and 13 559 households. [1] This paper considers two types of costs. There are costs of services which are associated with increasing or decreasing system capacity. Additional costs are the costs of rejected customers which are costs associated with deciding cus-tomers to leave the post office. Aim of this article to indicate the methodology of costs allocation of queuing system of post office and display the costs calculation method of rejected customers. Primary research using the question-naire and the simulation method proved to be an appropriate tool in this analysis. The results of this paper show the need to take into account the substitutability of the individual services provided at the post office and the repeated arrival of the rejected customer. In the case that a rejected customer requests a service provided also by other postal operators, the post office can deal with loss of customer..

Title of article:
Establishing the Concept of Universal Functionality in Public Transport
Authors: Elmar Wilhelm M. Fürst, Christian Vogelauer, Peter C. Huber
This article aims at providing a basic understanding of the important, but often neglected field of accessibility in public transport. Accessibility as an inclusive sustainable concept has the goal to enable all people to use the public transport system independently and self-determinedly. The implementation of accessible public transport directly affects different user groups. People who do not have temporary or permanent impairments will also benefit from simpler and more accessible systems. Consequently, the usability and comfort of public transport systems is raised for all persons. Therefore, the paper points out barriers and solutions for different target groups in public transport and discusses solutions for overcoming them. The paper concludes by showing how the consideration of accessibil-ity already in the planning phase of a project can substantially reduce costs and improve the quality of the services, respectively leading also to better economic results.

Title of article:
Modelling of traffic on a selected roundabout in Žilina
Authors: Veronika Harantová, Alica Kalašová, Kristián Čulík, Zuzana Otahálová
A high-quality network is currently a prerequisite for sustainable transport systems. The sharp increase in automo-bile traffic has resulted in increased transport problems. The most serious transport problems include traffic infra-structure congestion, increased accident risk and of course environmental impact. Daily mobility and securing the transport of goods is one of the key transport objectives. The most critical point of the road network is the intersec-tion. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on the vehicle to pass smoothly and safely when passing through this place. In this paper an analysis of the current status of the selected roundabout is created. Based on the survey it is pro-posed three solutions to improve the traffic conditions of the intersection. Aimsun micro-simulation was also used to create solutions.

Title of article:
Frequent Flyer Programs – Overview of Existing Models
Authors: Adam Hoszman, Elżbieta Marciszewska, Paweł Zagrajek
This paper describes three basic models of frequent flyer programs offered by airlines. Based on the definitions of these models an analysis of airline loyalty programs offered by European carriers was performed. The paper contains conclusions regarding the evolution of frequent flyer programs in Europe. The development process was assessed and prospective advances were identified.

Title of article:
Comparison of applications of Smart City concept in the capital cities of V4
Authors: Simona Jaculjaková, Lukáš Trnka, Stanislava Turská, Jana Kurotová, Iwona Rybicka
The article deals with the issue of Smart City concept in the capitals of the V4 countries. We have defined technical terms that are related to the issue. In the analysis of the current situation, we focused on individual areas in which the Smart City concept services are provided. Based on the analysis of the current state, we have concluded. The most frequently used applications in V4 capitals are those belonging to the three areas studied. These areas include transport, ecology and re-al-time services. We compared the individual applications provided to citizens in the capi-tals of the V4 countries. These applications are included in the three mentioned areas of the Smart City concept. Based on a detailed analysis, we defined the advantages and disadvantages of the three most used areas of the Smart City concept.

Title of article:
Selected Issues of the TCO Model for the Conversion of the Conventional Bus Fleet to Electric One
Authors: Krzysztof Krawiec, Grzegorz Karoń, Marcin Jacek Kłos, Łukasz Wierzbicki
National and European transport policy is now moving towards zero-emission transport. One way to achieve public transport policy objectives is to replace conventional buses with electric ones. However, due to the technical char-acteristics of electric buses, this process will be complicated. Tools are therefore required to support this process. The objective of the research project ERANET Electric Mobility Europe project "PLATON - Planning Process and Tool for Step-by-Step Conversion of the Conventional or Mixed Bus Fleet to a 100% Electric Bus Flee” is to support the stakeholders involved in the process of fleet renewal using an IT tool. Proper development of the tool requires the analysis of many aspects related to the process. The article presents selected elements influencing the total cost of ownership (TCO). The focus of the paper is on the technical and organizational aspects related to the replacement of bus fleet. Authors also shows the main aspects of the structure of TCO analysis.

Title of article:
Software for Identifying Secondary Packaging of Medicines
Authors: Viliam Mojský, Eva Adámiková, Mykhailo Dobroselskyi, Simona Jaculjaková, Pavel Staša
The article deals with the creation of software for automatic identification of secondary packaging of medicines. In the first part of the analysis we focused on the possibilities of creating software considering available equipment. The second part followed achieved results. Here we focused on the knowledge and software needed to create our solution. Based on the findings of the analysis, we started working on the software. We have tailored the software solution to fit our needs. It has been customized for the laboratory equipment while meeting our requirements. We have successfully created the software and it will be used in further research activities in the ongoing project.

Title of article:
The Identification Problem of Letterbox Transport Companies in the Slovak Republic
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Jana Tomicová, Patrícia Šimurková, Marek Jaśkiewicz
The letterbox companies are a major concern of many interested parties because they can create unfair competition and potentially undermine legitimate businesses by avoiding costs other than social contributions and taxes. There-fore, to ensure that carriers are equal and eliminate unfair competition, the need to improve the checking of letterbox transport companies is essential. The paper deals with the issue of more effective provision of inspections of letter-box transport companies within the Slovak Republic. Based on the analysis of the current situation in the Slovak Republic and based on the research carried out in relation to the existence of letterbox transport companies, the pa-per deals with the proposals related to their prevention and subsequent determination of the procedure for their checking.

Title of article:
Public Transport on Martinique - Current State and Recent Developments
Authors: Sönke Reise
Despite being part of the European Union, the French West Indies are not often in the focus of research. This paper aims to introduce Martinique and its public transport systems. Starting with an overview over Martinique, the pre-sent transport situation will be analysed with findings as follows: the most important suppliers of public transport services are buses in the capital area and taxi collectives on routes to/from the capital. Individual transport by (rental) car plays a major role, so road congestion is a major issue. Recent developments and innovations that may improve the present situation will be discussed as well.

Title of article:
Toward Management Of Traffic Culture In Macedonia
Authors: Jasmina Bunevska Talevska
The World Health Organization in its agenda on sustainable development 2030 sets a goal to reduce the number of traffic-related accidents by 50%. According to the trend of reducing the number of traffic-related accidents and the latest statistics report by SIA Bitola, this is a very high goal for our city and a great challenge which we could try to reach if we start acting right now by trying to rise and advance the traffic culture; to provide infrastructural facili-ties and elements that are planned and designed according to safety principles that correspond to the projected speed and road function, with access to frontal facilities and protective greenery as well as preserved historical and aes-thetic features; to provide a safe infrastructure for pedestrians, the elderly and persons with disabilities, but primar-ily permanent and visually attractive; to provide a safe and continuous bicycle infrastructure; to introduce traffic calming; to exclude and limit access of freight vehicles for transit and traffic in housing zones; to improve the ser-vices of taxis and public bus transport of passengers, namely to improve everything related to safe traffic and transport in our country. The general objective of this article is presentation of the approach to raising traffic safety and improving the traffic culture in our country through field educational workshops on the example of the city of Bitola, Macedonia.

Title of article:
Towards Interoperability of the Electronic Road Toll Systems in the European Union. Case of Poland
Authors: Elżbieta Załoga, Sylwia Kowalska
The road toll is a significant tool of transport politics due to its economic and social characteristics. Both of those fields search for integrity in activities for a balanced transport. While the road toll is an attempt of the country for internalisation of external transportation costs, the method of collecting the toll is a factor of improvement of public roads. The electronic road toll system (EETS) fulfils those purposes, under the condition of interoperability. The article describes the functionality of the road toll, its meaning for the internalisation of external costs, the interoper-ability of systems which collect road tolls in EU, and the results of incorporation of the electronic road toll systems in Poland. Subject literature, EU law regulations and institutional data were used in the elaboration.

II/2018 (Volume VI)

Title of article:
Value of Company and Choice of Valuation Method for Forwarding Company
Authors: Eva Adámiková, Roman Chinoracký, Tatiana Čorejová, Grzegorz Dydkowski
The value of company is a very broad concept. Its determination depends on many factors and valuer must take into account both internal and external factors which are affecting the company. In some cases, it is very difficult to decide which of the methods should be used so that the entire valuation is not unnecessarily overpriced for the contracting entity. Valuation also takes into account the resulting objective value. In the case where the choice of method is not determined by the legal act itself, consultation and agreement with the expert is necessary in order to clarify the state of the company and determine the reason for doing the valuation itself. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to choose an appropriate valuation method for a forwarding company.

Title of article:
Identification of the criteria determining the attractiveness of post offices in city Zilina
Authors: Dominika Hoštáková, Radovan Madleňák, Silvia Ďutková, Lucia Fúrová, Paweł Droździel
Customer´s preferences in the choice of a particular device is in many cases due to the attractiveness of this device. This means that customers are willing to travel longer distances to larger business centres with higher attractiveness. This is also the case for postal offices. Because postal operators are trying to maintain their customers, they also have to respond to these criteria that determine the attractiveness of the device providing of the required postal services. However, the attractiveness of the device can be perceived differently by customers. Therefore, the aim of the article is to find out these attractiveness criteria for individual post office customers, which in the future can help in selecting sites for the next post-creation or revocation of an existing mail.

Title of article:
Financial Health Assessment of International Airports
Authors: Jaroslav Mazanec, Viera Bartosova, Maksym Bezpartochnyi
The financial health of company is extremely important for potential investment decisions. Financial health is mainly assessed by financial analysis which identify strengths and weakness. The aim of paper is to evaluate and to compare financial health of selected international Slovak and Czech airports. We applied the best-known financial variables, particularly liquidity ratios, asset management ratios, debt ratios and profitability ratios. Then, we com-pare results of Bratislava Airport with Kosice Airport, Ostrava Airport and Prague Airport. We calculate financial ratios based on statements of international airports. The results show that Bratislava Airport is mainly good at cur-rent assets management during analysed period. On the other hand, Bratislava Airport have long-term problem with profitability ratios.

Title of article:
Ecological Impact of Changes in Transport Organisation in Martin with Using Transport-Planning Software
Authors: Ján Palúch, Kristián Čulík, František Synák, Juraj Hammer, Jerzy Mikulski
Using motor vehicles, which uses fossil fuels, is connected with emissions. The main goal of cities, towns and also of the state is to keep these emissions as low as possible. Vehicles move on a traffic network where they are forced to accelerate and decelerate due to various impacts. Junctions and traffic jams are examples of these impacts. An important task is to build transport networks and junctions where vehicles can cross the junction as quickly as possible without unnecessary delay and a significant change in speed. This can contribute to lower vehicle fuel consumption and thus lower emissions.

Title of article:
Delivery Models in Last Mile Logistics
Authors: Stanislava Turská, Roman Chinoracký, Jana Kurotová, Simona Jaculjaková, Iwona Rybicka
In logistics the key problem of last mile is how to deliver goods from distribution hub to end users in cities and built-up areas. The paper deals with an issue of last mile delivery. The main objective of the paper is to analyse pos-sible solutions how to deliver consignments to end customers. To achieve the aim, we realized secondary research in which we identified seven basic delivery models. Some of the delivery models are traditional, but there are delivery models which are a matter of the near future. One of the most appropriate solutions how to enhance effectiveness in the process of last mile delivery is to take advantages of every identified delivery model. Results of the research also imply a comparison of delivery models.

Title of article:
Research on Relationship Between Road Freight Transport and Infrastructure in European Countries
Authors: Pavol Varjan, Jozef Gnap, Pavol Ďurana, Mariusz Kostrzewski
The article deals with research of relationship between the performance of road and freight transport and transport infrastructure (motorways) in EU countries. The main goal is to find out how transport infrastructure has a relationship and influence on the development of transport performance. The relationship between transport performance and transport infrastructure has been examined by correlation and regression analysis. Research has shown that the strength of these relationships is different for states. There is a strong direct and indirect dependence between transport infrastructure and transport performance.

I/2018 (Volume VI)

Title of article:
Analysis of the bus preference and bus stops in Košice
Authors: Peter Medviď, Juraj Hammer, Miloš Poliak
Abstract: Systematic growth of amount of cars and vehicle ownership incites to a growth of traffic flow in locality areas and cities, especially at the traffic peak. A slowing down of traffic, increase of density on traffic areas and advance growth of delay at the crossroads, increasing of exhaust emissions, noise and vibrations is a result of these changes, which manages to traffic accidents increasing.

Title of article:
The Selected Aspects of a S2B Internal Partnership
Authors: Lucia Možuchová, Matej Pechota
Abstract: In the knowledge-driven economy there is a need for deeper and more productive interaction between universities and industry. Science-to-business (S2B) marketing is characterized by that two different spheres meet - the academic and the business. In S2B marketing, partnership refers to the activities whose aim is to create accordance between internal and external stakeholders. Internal partnership is focused on creating an atmosphere of partnership within the organization. The aim of the paper is to propose possible changes in the implementation of the S2B internal partnership in terms of University of Žilina. In order to achieve the stated aim, an analysis of the application of the S2B internal partnership at selected universities was performed.

Title of article:
Processing of traffic sign passport on the road no. II/519 from the Prievidza city to end of the village Pribovce
Authors: Ján Palúch, Kristián Čulik, Matúš Korfant, Alica Kalašová
This paper deals with an analysis of the current situation, a proposal for a new traffic sign passport and economical evaluation of our solutions. Output of our work is new traffic sign passport, which was offered to a, solutions of problematic sections are proposed, including the addition and removal of deficiencies in the selected section of the road. The final part deals with the evaluation of the design of the new road sign passport, which contains the necessary financial costs for the implementation of all modifications on route II / 519.

Title of article:
Stratification of postal areas
Authors: Matej Pechota, Lucia Možuchová
The postal network consists of sending points, delivery points or shipment between these points. Its separation within the selected country is important. The stratification of postal areas has an impact for example on the length of the transit time, the number of posts to be operated and the associated operating costs. Stratification of postal areas is affecting several areas. In this article, we will focus on stratifying postal areas depend from the transit time. The article proves importance of the stratification because it is one piece of real mail studies.

Title of article:
Transport costs and their impact on the expansion of cities and agglomerations
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Juraj Hammer, Peter Medviď, Kristián Čulík
Costs as a component that represents the decision-making factor for each individual or company, we are meet every day. This article focuses on transport costs that have an impact on urban sprawl, reverting to the source of the individual's transportation target and changing the choice of transfer decision-making with respect to transport costs. Habits how to move from one place to another, in greatly affects the means of transport used by the individual. It is this factor, how to positively influence a passenger to replace individual car traffic for another mode of transport by means of transport costs this article will be dealt with. The degree of automotive has a rising character over the year. It is precisely a tool for helping to partially eliminate the negative impact of individual car traffic on society and city expanses are transport costs.

Title of article:
Driver Training
Authors: Vladimír Rievaj, Ján Gaňa, Tomasz Figlus
Road transport has become a very important part of supply chain management. The large number of vehicles in operation requests large number of qualified person to operate them. The lack of young person interested in this job and obstacles in the training and qualification process result in current labour market state when large number of person are missing.

Title of article:
City Logistics and Air Quality
Authors: Radovan Slávik, Dominika Beňová, Jozef Gnap, Ondrej Stopka
Abstract: The paper focuses on the impact of city logistics on air quality. The first chapter focuses on the EU's transport policy for 2030-2050 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The second chapter focuses on air quality in the Slovak Republic and the amount of greenhouse gases in the air. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the impact of road transport on air quality and air pollution as well as the need to reduce these harmful emissions.

Title of article:
The Impact of Using Trailers on the Fuel Consumption
Authors: František Synák, Vladimír Rievaj, Štefánia Semanová, Ján Palúch
The amount of fuel consumed may also be influenced by driving style, speed as well as by the need for the use of passenger car trailers. This paper deals with the impact of using such trailers on the amount of fuel consumed. Measurement of the impact of the passenger car trailer on fuel consumption was carried out during driving at con-stant speed and during acceleration. The measurements were performed by driving test on a flat road. The first part of the paper deals with the driving resistances which influence fuel consumption during driving at constant speed and during acceleration on the flat road. The second part describes the vehicle used for measurements and measuring equipment. The conclusion of the paper includes the principles to reduce the impact of passenger car trailers on the amount of fuel consumed.  

II/2017 (Volume V)

Title of article: Optimization of empirical models of transport planning in railway transport
Author: Milan Dedík, Matúš Dlugoš, Jozef Gašparík, Vladimír Ľupták, Peter Blaho
Abstract: This paper is focused on analysis of the empirical models of transport planning in railway transport. At first are described general information and basic principles about known models. In the second chapter are mentioned current empirical models used in railways transport. There are explained methods of calculations for Nyvig and Lill´s gravitational model at all and introduced comparison of optimal values with actual values at chosen transport routes according to Lill´s model. The third chapter includes proposal of the extension the current Lill´s model including the practical application at the concrete chosen transport route.

Title of article: Determination of probability distribution of customer input at post office
Author: Silvia Ďutková, Dominika Hoštáková, Tomáš Mišík, Iwona Rybicka
Abstract: If we want to analyze a real system with a large number of input data, it is very convenient to determine a probability distribution that best fits to given input data. There are many statistical methods to determine the correct probability distribution and one of them is Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test. This statistical test can be also used to find out a probability distribution of time intervals between arrivals of customers at post office. Intervals between arrivals of customers occur in continuous time and therefore we consider continuous probable distributions.

Title of article: Changes in night-time distribution of goods to the city centres as a tool to meet the requirements of the EU white paper on transport
Author: Jozef Gnap, Dominika Beňová, Radovan Slávik, Grzegorz Dydkowski
Abstract: The report focuses on assessing the advantages and disadvantages of night distribution in selected European cities. The first chapter is focused on projects focused on night distribution of goods in the city centre. The second chapter deals with a more detailed analyses of night distribution in some countries of the European Union. It shows concrete example, a solution for night distribution, which can be applied to our Slovak cities. Even in Slovakia, it has to deal with the issue in view of the constantly increase the number and the duration of traffic accidents not only in Bratislava, but also in all regional cities.  

Title of article: Modelling traffic conditions in the cadaster of Veľká Lomnica
Author: Matúš Korfant, Ján Palúch, Marián Gogola, Rafał Jurecki
Abstract: This article is focused on the analysis of the current traffic situation in the cadaster of Veľká Lomnica and suggestions for its improvement. The most important intersection of the road I/67 and II/540 is problematic where is also located the railway crossing with a light signalling device. As a basis for the traffic analysis was performed traffic survey at the four positions in the cadastral territory. Its analysis provides information about the current traffic intensity and is also the basis for the simulation of traffic in traffic - planning software AIMSUN. The article contains an evaluation of various proposed solutions on the basis of the results from AIMSUN software and the selection of the appropriate variant.

Title of article: The impact of University of Žilina´s employees on regional development
Author: Lucia Možuchová, Lucia Gašperová, Mária Rostášová, Dorota Jelonek
Abstract: The university is an important part of the region's infrastructure and has the potential to initiate changes and transform the economy into a diverse range. The presence of a university in a host city or region has a strong impact on regional development. Universities are usually among the largest employers in the city. Their employees, students and visitors spend some of their finances in this city, which have an impact on local and regional economic development. The total size of the impact of university varies depending on the size of the university and the characteristics of the local and regional economy. The primary aim of the contribution is identification of the selected short-term impacts of the University of Žilina to the city and region, where it has its registered office. To achieve the stated goal, primary research was carried out primarily focused on the economic impact of university staff on the development of the Žilina´s region

Title of article: Driver salary identification by hypothesis testing
Author: Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Adela Poliaková, Marek Jaśkiewicz
Abstract: This paper outlines comparing two independent samples, particularly average driver salary in Slovakia and the other EU countries. Significant differences between salaries are pointed out through two examples dealing with hypothesis testing. For Western European Union countries, the level of salaries in road transport is higher in absolute terms compared to the salaries of drivers in the central and eastern parts of the European Union. Different salaries and requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs however harmonization of salaries in the field of road transport is specific because carriers offer transport throughout the whole European Union market.

Title of article: The impact of roof box on fuel consumption
Author: František Synák, Vladimír Rievaj
Abstract: Passenger vehicles are major petroleum consumers and contributors of greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions in many countries around the world. The amount of fuel consumed affects the environment, status of health of human population as well as financial costs that are associated with vehicle operation. The roof box is one of the often used vehicle attachments. The aim of the paper is to measure the increase of fuel consumption affected by an installed roof box. The impact of roof box on the increase of fuel consumption is measured at the speeds of 50 km.h-1, 90 km.h-1 and 130 km.h-1. The introduction of the paper describes particular harmful constituents of exhaust gases and their effects. Another part of the article includes the methodology of measurement and its results. The last part of the article involves the evaluation of results and recommendations relating to reduction of the increase of fuel consumption affected by roof box.

Title of article: Statistical survey of road freight transport performance indicators
Author: Pavol Varjan, Jozef Gnap, Štefánia Semanová, Ondrej Stopka
Abstract: This paper deals with the statistical survey of road freight transport performance indicators in the Slovak Republic and Europe. The aim is to point out disagreements in statistical data. The data will be compared in the databases of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and Eurostat databases. These disagreements concern performance indicators for road freight and transport of passengers. The first part of the article describes the role of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and Eurostat. Further, the survey data is shown. In the middle part there are disagreements in the statistics. At the end of the article are explained problems with collecting data from road freight transport companies.  

Title of article: The purpose of long-distance passenger trains in public passenger transport system
Author: Martin Vojtek, Borna Abramovic, Martin Kendra, Vladislav Zitrický
Abstract: Current economical trends create new requirements to population mobility. People always travel for many reasons and they are very dependent on the system of passenger transport. There are several modes of transport, but passengers mostly use road and rail transport. Passenger transport system is influenced by many qualitative factors with various impacts. Long-distance passenger trains have got significant position on the transport market, what represents demand and offer in the passenger transport system. These trains connects far places therefore transport accessibility in the region or country is better and passenger railway transport is more attractive for traveling public. This article is focused on main purpose of these trains from operational and economical point of view.

Title of article: Calculation of total costs when ensuring railway passenger transport at the Bratislava to Banská Bystrica line
Author: Zdenka Záhumenská, Jozef Gašparík, Milan Škorupa, Petr Kurenkov
Abstract: Nowadays, great emphasis is placed on the quality of services provided in rail passenger transport, which is influenced by several factors. The competition between operators in the public tender when ordering paths in long-distance rail passenger transport is very significant. The aim of this article is to analyse steps of the Slovak government in the announcement of the first public tenders to provide subsidized transport of a selected line and to determine conditions for this tender. During 2015, Slovak Ministry of Transport began to take steps towards the liberalisation of the long-distance domestic rail passenger service on the Bratislava to Banská Bystrica line, which opened up the market for domestic passenger services to a new railway company. The Bratislava to Banská Bystrica line was chosen because of the provision of sufficient transport performance and passenger flows. The liberalisation process of the Bratislava to Banská Bystrica line is still ongoing, and has entered com-petitive conditions and criteria stage, although the tender had yet to be concluded in 2015.

I/2017 (Volume V)

Title of article:
A diverging diamond interchange (DDI) in conditions of road network in Slovakia
Matúš Korfant, Ján Palúch, Alica Kalašová
This article focuses on the comparison of the current uncontrolled intersection and the new type of intersection. To obtain the most accurate results the intersection is simulated in the Aimsun software. The intersection is situated in Bratislava. It is formed by exits and entrances to the highway D2. The new type of the intersection is denoted as a Diverging diamond interchange (DDI) which increases the safety and fluency of the road traffic. It is most used in the interchanges.

Title of article:
The trend of a number of internet connections in Slovakia and selected European countries
Matej Pechota, Mária Matúšková
Nowadays we live in a time, when the number of internet connections are growing as users start sending information mostly via the internet. This article consists of statistics and information about the internet connections in Slovakia and through statistical methods we will calculate if the trend grows or rises in every district of Slovakia. The trend shows us, how important it is to adapt from postal services to new trends and take care about users who want to use postal services in this new way and to demonstrate that the number of internet connections are growing in every country. In this article we will compare statistical data between Slovakia and selected European countries. For more specific results, we should calculate the trend per citizen. The reason is, that we should compare countries where much more citizens live, than in Slovakia. This article focuses on the situation in the Slovak market. It could help to demonstrate how electronic communication and postal services could cooperate.

Title of article:
Temperature of the brakes and the braking force
Vladimír Rievaj, Lenka Mokričková, František Synák
The kinetic energy of the braking vehicle is changed into heat and the resulting heat increases the temperature of each part of brakes. The changed temperature affects the coefficient of friction between the brake lining and brake drum of brake disc. Unless the brakes are actuated hydraulically there is the warning brake pads and brake fluid. Object of examination in this article is the impact of repetitive braking to change of these parameters and the impact of time to change the boiling point of the brake fluid.  

Title of article:
Zero-fare transport services and its impact on segment of students
Natália Stalmašeková, Tatiana Genzorová, Lucia Gašperová
The end of 2014 brought big changes for the Slovak rail passenger transport market. On November 17th, the state began to cover the full cost of tickets for selected passenger groups, which caused a significant increase in passenger numbers from these groups. It is a European rarity. This social initiative made many people happy, but also brought a lot of displeasure. The aim of this paper is to analyse, on the basis of primary research, impacts of zero- fare transport services on the segment of students. The paper also provides an overview of zero-fare transport conditions and basic characteristic of Železničná spoločnosť Slovensko.

Title of article:
Measurement of impact of air filter cleanness on a change of engine speed characteristics
František Synák, Vladimír Rievaj
The paper is focused on the impact of clogged air filter on a change of speed characteristics of spark-ignition engine 1.4 MPI, 16V, 74 kW. The clogged air filter can cause deterioration in engine charging. Less air means the possibility of burning smaller amount of fuel, and thus less energy brought to the engine. This should cause a change in the size of engine torque and its power.

II/2016 (Volume IV)

Title of article:
Channel Coding in Optical Communication Systems
Viktor Durcek, Michal Kuba, Milan Dado
In this paper, an overview of various types of error-correcting codes is present. Three generations of forward error correction methods used in optical communication systems are listed and described. Forward error correction schemes proposed for use in future high-speed optical networks can be found in the third generation of codes.

Title of article:
Trends and Concepts of Development of The Logistic System of Kazakhstan
Aisha Muratovna Musabekova, Paweł Droździel, Lucia Madleňáková
The world integration tendency goes on the way of creation of the integrated macrologistic systems, including transport and logistic systems of the country, logistic centers, terminal complexes and other links of the logistic system. The logistics has already gone far beyond the national borders of the states. The interstate and transnational macrologistic systems, designed to facilitate traffic of information, goods, equity, and people through borders are rapidly growing. Paper focuses on the analysis and trends of development of the logistics system of Kazakhstan.

Title of article:
Market Access in Freight Forwarding and Responsibility of Freight Forwarder
Miloš Poliak, Patrícia Šimurková, Michaela Mrníková, Lenka Komačková
Abstract: The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. The paper highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples.

Title of article:
Benefits of Autonomously Driven Vehicles
Vladimír Rievaj, Lenka Mokričková, František Synák
The vehicles with high grades have the embedded systems which are essential for the operation of a vehicle with higher standard of safety. This way road transport can significantly closer to the safety of rail and air transport be-cause the error of driver is the main cause of the accident. The expected benefits of autonomous vehicles are their ability to observe small distances between the vehicles. Based on the information from stationary sources and vehi-cles running near adjust their route and speed of travel so as to minimize delays in congestions. This ensures greater continuity of driving, reducing consumption of vehicles and therefore the production of greenhouse gases from road transport. If the vehicles are capable of autonomous driving is achieved higher average speed and they have been removed the mandatory brakes within driving. It achieves the higher performance of individual vehicles and thus fewer number of vehicles on the roads and less traffic congestion.

Title of article:
Municipal Transport - Infrastructure
Iwona Rybicka, Paweł Droździel, Jacek Caban, Radovan Madleňák
One of the most important problems that we face in Poland, is a low degree of safety connected with municipal transport infrastructure. It stands out from numerous factors and conditions. That is why numerous actions aimed at improving transport safety are being undertaken. One of them is improved safety of vehicles that are directly connected with municipal transport safety.

I/2016 (Volume IV)

Title of article: The Importance of Knowledge Transfer to Industry
Author: Emília Madudová
Abstract: The paper examines the specific knowledge universities transfer to industry, reflecting to creative industry needs. As results shows, the most asked alumni competences should be tacit knowledge and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking influence the creativity. Creativity is often defined as the ability to develop new and useful ideas, but in deep literature review, we can see few irregularities and different definitions of creativity. The paper also evaluates the importance of creativity from business environment point of view and from the creative industry perspective and creative firm owners. As point of view. Another key finding is, that to educate creative people will be one of the key competitive advantage, because mainly the ability to create and disseminate knowledge is often at the heart of the organization's competitive advantage not only in creative industry, but in transport industry as well.

Title of article: Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
Authors: Andrej Novák, Nikolas Žáčik
Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of a study of modern telecommunication technology in the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network. The article deals with the integration of modern telecommunication technology into the still developing sector of aeronautical telecommunication. The ATN is a data communications inter-network that provides its users a robust and reliable Air/Air, Air/Ground and Ground/Ground communications service.

Title of article: The Effectivness of Suporting Public Passenger Transport from Public Funds
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Peter Varjan
Abstract: The paper deals with the issue of efficiency of financial support for public passenger transport from public funds from the perspective of improving road safety. The aim is to verify the hypothesis that financing public passenger transport from public funds is a significant tool to influence the number of passengers carried by individual automobile transport, and thus it can be a tool for influencing road safety in a particular territory. The first part of the paper analyses the sources for financial support of public passenger transport. The last part analyses possible impacts of financing public passenger transport on the road safety in relation to the specified hypothesis.  

Title of article: The role of human element in aviation safety
Authors: Justyna Reut, Jacek Caban, Bożena Widzicka
Abstract: Each industry is characterized that without human factor will not be able to function. This also applies to aviation, which focuses mainly on human labour. This sense of security what provides staff workers, on what the shoulders are the duty of care not to create a hazard before, during and after the flight. On the civil and military airports they employ staff not only flying but also ground handling. These include: auditors, managers flights, technicians, ground handling runway and apron, cargo department employees, firefighters and other emergency services, personnel service to passengers in the terminals, customs, security, and even people like hawkers, law enforcement officers, managers and managers of the various sectors. Each of these professions is responsible for a different aspect of the airport, and is necessary for the proper conduct of flight operations and passenger services and ensuring security. In the largest airports with lots of terminals with dense air traffic performance characteristics of employed people, the variety of tasks, and thus the level of complexity of the operation resemble a small town. In order for it to function efficiently is all you need is a good organization, through which cooperation between all departments of work is smooth and provides quick action in dangerous situations. Each employee should know their role and perform the desired function best, so to fill up the board and the workforce to reliably performed its duties and to the performance of their work brought economic profits.

Title of article: 160 km/h on the Highway
Authors: Vladimír Rievaj, Lenka Mokričková
Abstract: The speed limit on the highways of Slovak Republic is 130 km/h. It is recently considered the increase of this speed on some sections to the 1600 km/h. However this increase brings with it a substantial negative impacts. On the basis of its evaluation appears to increase this speed to 160 km/h as inappropriate

Title of article: Value Chains as the Tools for Differentiation of Offer in Services
Authors: Alexandra Rovňanová, Mária Rostášová, Marek Valica
Abstract: Customers are generally characterized by having different requirements in selection from the product offer. They are interested in the so-called differentiated offers on the market because the differentiation of services is based on providing higher added value to the customers in comparison with competitors. One of the ways of possible solution is the use of value chain which enables company to find the opportunities to differentiate its product portfolio. The value chain can be used for finding the sources of differentiation and suitable placement in a customer value chain, for identifying a way to create the value of competition as well as for ensuring of the most profitable placement in supply and distribution value chains. Contribution focuses on the possibility of using diagnostics of value chains in services and it also presents a draft sequence of the diagnostic phases applied in the evaluation of activities/processes contained in the value chains. An important part of this contribution is connected with the ideas about the completion of traditional value chain with virtual value chain. It presents the proposals to discussion which should currently integrate the virtual world of information into further value chains of service company activities.

II/2015 (Volume III)

Title of article:
European Transport Corridors and North Adriatic Ports
s: Helena Bínová, Martin Jurkovič
From the ports in the northern Adriatic Sea (ports of Ravenna, Venezia, Trieste, Koper, Rijeka) a route from European ports of North Sea to the Far East is shorter by about 2000 nautical miles. It means a reduction of 6 to 8 days in shipping. These ports are reachable from commercial and industrial centers of Central and Eastern Europe. An assessment of the current situation and future development of the European transport corridors North - South, including possible inter-connection by multimodal corridors Baltic ports in the north and Adriatic ports in the south, is included in this paper. This corridor is one of the ten basic corridors included in the new conception of the TEN-T European transport network with the assumption of financial support from the EU in the period of 2014-2020. Further, the paper also includes an analysis of a modal assessment (Modal Split) of transport connections of Central Europe with the Far East. The heart of the paper is a proposal of connection of chosen seaports that serve as logistics terminals to current European multimodal corridors and further to proposed multimodal corridors.

Title of article:
Laser scanning optimisation process in mountainous terrain
Mária Mrázová
Digital terrain model is applicable for many possibilities related to aerial works by use of photogrammetry or laser scanning of the earth’s surface. For the purpose of this research we consider just laser scanning used for work in difficult mountain terrain. The terrain of the Slovak Republic has many high hills and it signifies more complex flight planning, as laser scanning is usually flown in lower heights than photogrammetry. Moreover, as lower height is above terrain than the overlap between subsequent LIDAR strips is also lower. This situation can also lead towards the negative value in extreme instances. This paper also describes the most effective way for flight planning during laser scanning of mountain terrain by comparison of two different technologies from operational and economical point of view.

Title of article:
Value of Time Savings as a Factor in Deciding on Route Choice
Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Lenka Komačková, Michaela Mrníková
The paper deals with the definition of time savings as a factor in deciding on route choice of a carrier whether to use toll road network. The first part of the paper describes a history of road infrastructure charging in the EU Member States and the USA. Next part analyses the factors affecting decision-making process of a carrier when considering which road infrastructure to use – toll or non-tolled roads. The paper also identifies the value of time savings as a significant factor in route choice.

Title of article:
Airlines in Poland
Patrycja Rut, Tomasz Łusiak, Andrej Novák, Nikolas Žáčik
In this article is described the concept of the airline. This article describes the different types of airline concepts which can occur in the airline market. The main topic of this research is description of all Polish airlines in detail. You can find in this topic description of each Polish airline also with a fleet and departures what were main attributes for this research and for determining of airline model of each Polish company.

I/2015 (Volume III)

Title of article: Low-Cost Carriers – Business Model Development
s: Antonín Kazda, Mária Mrázová
Abstract: This paper deals with low-cost airline business model that has overwhelmingly been the favoured mode of the airline. Fast-changing aviation industry forces low-cost carriers to transform their initial business model and therefore, author stresses further opportunities for the expansion of these models to another direction with more concentration on customer´s needs as well as company´s operational and financial benefits. One of the most important partial results is analysis of existing low-cost carrier’s business models, describe their historical evolution and propose future modifications to stay competitive and profitable.

Title of article: Operator – Pilot Learning Success With Aviation Ergatic System Control
Authors: Pavol Kurdel, Tobiáš Lazar, Alena Novák Sedláčková
Abstract: The unique mission of operator – pilot during the performed flight lies in the responsibility for selected aircraft position doctrine along determine flight trajectory determined by programme. The mutuality of the relationship of the operator - pilot (OP) and the aircraft completes the image of an ergatic system [7] in which the OP is bound to the object (aircraft), makes decisions in complex flight situations, optimises the transfer of the aircraft into a regular flight. OP also decides about the change to manual aircraft control, which is the main feature of a selective method of flight ergatic system along determined flight trajectory control. The paper shows a method of determination and evaluation of operator – pilot with the aim to obtain quality in successful fulfilment of aviation ergatic system.

Title of article: Comparison of R&D within the Visegrad countries
Authors: Radovan Madleňák, Mário Al Kassiri
Abstract: Knowledge is learning, as short explanation meaning. Knowledge is gained by long-term experience, continual learning, as well as by finding the right solutions for the issue. The longer we take the time for solving and analysing the issue the better given solution can be obtained. Knowledge is very closely linked with creativity, as Einstein had mentioned, Creativity has no boundaries, but it is a process that requires knowledge of the problem and longer term experience according to research. The knowledge economy is very important for growing economies. Countries which are rich of raw material resources yet don't need to be countries which are part of developed countries. This might be caused by not supporting the ideas of innovations, education, or research and development. Simply we can say that growing economics is based on knowledge.

Title of article: Providing Transport Services Based on the Gross Cost and Net Cost Contracts
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Peter Varjan, Lenka Komačková
Abstract: The paper deals with an issue of the impact of a contract form choice on providing public transport services and its influence on a scope of transport services. The first part of the paper describes the current situation in selected countries and then various contract forms. It also analyses the existing risks and possibilities for their allocation between the contracting parties in the field of public transport provision. Further part of the paper describes an approach of public service operators to net cost contracts and gross costs contracts.

Title of article: Development of courier services in Poland
Authors: Ewelina Porębska, Jacek Caban, Mateusz Sopoćko
Abstract: The article presents the genesis of courier services in Poland, since the first such businesses in 1982. Courier companies in Poland are relatively short on the market, holding the prominent place in the economy of the country. The courier services in comparison with the countries of Western Europe are still in the development stage. After 2000 began the process of merger of best organised national courier companies by the largest global companies. In the article are presented factors affecting development of courier service in Poland, as well as the changes, which occurred within a few years, such as the level of employment, enterprises operating range and their generated revenue.

II/2014 (Volume II)

Title of article: Effect Of Injection Advance Angle On Auto-Ignition Delay And Response Of Ad3.152 Ur Engine
s: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experimental investigations into the effect of injection advance angle in the AD3.152UR engine on auto-ignition delay time and engine response coefficient value. In the tests, the engine operated under the full load characteristics and was fuelled by commercial diesel oil. The injection advance angle ranged αww∈<13, 21> CA deg. The tests aimed to assess the engine ability to adapt to variable load conditions.

Title of article: Defining Standardized Quality Level in Suburban Bus Transport
Authors: Vladimír Konečný, Mária Kostolná
Abstract: The article deals with the possibilities of standardizing the quality level of suburban bus transport services. The procedures respect the legislative requirements which are valid in the Slovak Republic. The proposed theoretical methods are applied to specific measurement results of expectation and perception of the quality by the passengers in a significant transport hub of northern Slovakia, the region of Žilina. The findings will be applied in development of the standardization quality level in suburban bus transport to its anchoring into the service contract between self-governing region and operator of bus transport. This approach has not yet been applied in the Slovak Republic.

Title of article: Non Directional Beacons Checking
Authors: Ján Pitor, Filip Škultéty, Karol Götz
Abstract: This paper aims to familiarize experts from other fields with issues of flight check of Non Directional Beacon (NDB) and its assessment. The AT-940 Automatic Flight Inspection System and the aircraft PIPER SENECA are described followed by flight check specifications and procedures. Evaluated were the coverage of NDB Z, NDB ZLA located at Žilina airport and Standard Instrument Approach Procedure for runway 06. The results of evaluation are in paragraph 4. The paper is based on project “Centre of excellence for Air Transport” focused on the impact of air transport on environment photogrammetry, surveillance of electromagnetic compatibility of radio navigation aids and radio communication equipment.

Title of article: Competitiveness of Enterprises in Polish SME Sector
Authors: Anna Wolak-Tuzimek, Elżbieta Noworol-Luft, Radosław Luft
Abstract: Growth factors of competitiveness are presented empirically. Conditions of competitiveness are determined by internal factors, dependent on enterprises themselves, and by a wide range of internal factors, dependent on the macroeconomic environment. Analysis of statistics concerning 2004-2011, collected as part of the author's research, leads to the conclusion that enterprises gain competitive advantage by low pricing and high quality of their products. A growing importance of quality as a factor determining enterprise competitiveness can also be noted.

I/2014 (Volume II)

Title of article: Comparative Assessment of CI Engine Response
s: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The response of the piston internal combustion engine provides an important indicator to assess the engine ability to adapt to constantly varying load conditions in its operation. It is the main criterion by which engines powering automotive vehicles are evaluated. It also affects road safety. The engine response depends on the profile of the curve that shows changes in the engine torque as a function of the crankshaft rotational speed. The paper presents a comparison of CI engines representing different generations with respect to constructional level. The engines that underwent comparison were equipped with the fuel system with a rotary injection pump and with Common Rail fuel system.

Title of article: Fuel Impact on the Response of AD3.152 UR Engine
Authors: Andrzej Ambrozik, Tomasz Ambrozik, Dariusz Kurczyński, Piotr Łagowski
Abstract: The paper presents results of investigations into the AD3.152 UR engine running on five fuels: commercial diesel oil DO, rapeseed oil fatty acid methyl esters FAME and their blends B10 (90% DO + 10% FAME), B20 (80% DO + 20% FAME), B30 (70% DO + 30% FAME). During the tests, the engine operated in accordance with the full load characteristics. Those characteristics were used to determine the engine response. The paper provides an assessment of the impact of the type of plant-derived fuel on the engine response.

Title of article: Software Architecture of an Information System for Aviation Broker Center
Authors: Gregor Krajčovič, Silvia Horňáková
Abstract: This article describes an information system concept designed to provide large amounts of geospatial data to the public. It addresses specific software design challenges, including wide computational power and storage scalability and unclear definition of stakeholders. It defines functional, security and performance requirements and provides a conceptual system design proposal.

Title of article: Different Allocation Systems
: Mária Letanovská
Abstract: Based on the London´s airports example it is obvious that there are differences between 3rd level airports. If the same coordination system would be introduced within various coordinated airports it could lead to various results. The results of analysis of intra-EU route data indicate that larger aircraft have been used at the 3rd level airports and there is no strong evidence of inefficient slot hoarding at these airports, not only before but also after the EC’s recognition of secondary slot trading. In contrast, the analysis of slot trading at Heathrow and Gatwick show that slot trading has taken place more likely within alliance and the chances have been very small for carriers to obtain slots from their actual or potential competitors. For the time being, there may be no need for additional regulatory interventions into secondary slot trading as there is little evidence of inefficient slot hoarding. However, the scarce opportunity of slot trading may lead to less intense competition and then to less efficient use of slots in the long run.

Title of article: Choosing the Suitable Method for Multimodal Logistics Object Location in the Slovak Republic and Setting up the Criteria Matrix
Authors: Ondrej Stopka, Ivana Šimková
Abstract: This paper deals with the choosing of a suitable method for multimodal logistics object location in the Slovak Republic. The paper also describes several methods concerning the multimodal logistics object location in particular area, determines the crucial method related to this issue and presents setting up the criteria matrix for the needs of this object location in the Slovak Republic.

II/2013 (Volume I)

Title of article: Efficient Transport System in Urban Environment
Author: Marian Gogola
Abstract: The current cities have problem with function of their transport infrastructure mainly for the reason of congestion and the increasing trend of individual car usage. The call for solving and proposing the efficient transport systems occurs due the fact of mobility condition reduction in the urban environment. Therefore this paper deals with focusing on the topic of efficient transport system with accent to evaluation of single transport means and their impact on the urban environment. The two parameters are proposed the Capacity Index (CI) and the Vehicle Emission Pollutant Index (VEPI) which indices how efficient the transport systems are in first case in transport infrastructure capacity, second in environmental issue.

Title of article: SWOT analysis of the Slovak inland waterway transport
Author: Romana Hricová
Abstract: The paper deals with SWOT analysis of Slovak rivers. Although Slovak Republic is situated in the Central Europe, waterways are relatively short and not branched. Inland waterway includes commercial, sporting and tourist navigations. Commercial navigation is limited by flow volume and length of floating period. For commercial navigation have Danube, Váh and Bodrog the best conditions. All three navigable rivers do not allow maximum stable immergence use of actual vessels during the whole year. Navigable conditions (curve radiuses, fairway width, navigable depth, flow rate, flowage) are changeable during the year..

Title of article: The Increasing the Safety of Railway Crossings
Authors: Eva Nedeliaková, Ivan Nedeliak, Martin Búda
Abstract: This article is focused on improving safety at railway crossings and points of active and passive safety features. By following these general safety rules we can reduce or eliminate the risks that increasingly affect the right of railway crossings. The article describes redundant lock crossing time, which unfavourably affects the rail crossing accidents and the solution, which eliminates this factor. The paper is supported by the VEGA Agency by the Project 1/0188/13 „Quality factors of integrated transport system in the effective provision of public transport services in the context of globalisation“, that is solved at Faculty of Operations and Economics of Transport and Communication, University of Žilina.

Title of article: Evaluation of Effectiveness of Regional Airports in Central Europe by Data Envelope Analysis
Authors: Ivana Stryčeková, Anna Tomová
Abstract: In the paper we evaluate economic efficiency of 20 regional airports in Central Europe (Bratislava capital airport including) within 2004 – 2010 using input oriented data envelope analysis (DEA) with constat return on scale to identify super efficiency score. The paper results contribute to airport economic benchmarking literature which is still insufficient just for airports of regional nature. Covering 12 economic inputs and outputs parameters our research revealed Bratislava airport within the sample analyzed as efficient all the period analyzed which may be used as a supportive argument when stating development strategy for Bratislava airport.

I/2013 (Volume I)

Title of article: Optimizing of Fuel Costs by Using Information System
Author: Dušan Halaj
Abstract: The paper deals with the possibility of fuel consumption reduction with the utilization of information system, which can be acquired by carrier for each vehicle. The charges in the paper are calculated without the utilization of information system and without the fuel consumption reduction and with the utilization of information system and with the fuel consumption reduction.

Title of article: The measurement of contact surface of dunnage bag used for cargo securing in different gaps between cargo
Authors: Juraj Jagelčák, Ján Vrábel, Matej Pauliak
Abstract: This article provides comparison between the measured values of dunnage bag restraining forces and calculated values of restraining forces according to the draft version of Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code) for the dunnage bag of dimensions 60x120 cm and maximum filling pressure 0,2 bar.

Title of article:
The Analysis of Safety on Polish Roads between 2000 - 2010
Authors: Marek Jaskiewicz, Rafał S. Jurecki
Abstract: This article provides an assessment of the security situation on Polish roads. Statistical data on road accidents that occurred in different provinces in late 2000 - 2010 have been analysed and the attention has been drawn to the differences in the number of road accidents recorded between them. The analysis of accident statistics and the effects they had on particular provinces have been made. They were presented as for Świętokrzyskie province as compared to other provinces.

Title of article: The Genesis and Metamorphoses of Risk
Authors: Tomáš Klieštik, Miloš Birtusz
Abstract: Each business activity and also an individual person face risk every day. But what is risk? People have different attitudes to risk. Natural survival instincts make some people use all possible means to avoid injury or loss. These decisions are not decisions but more of inner instincts of survival. If we move from an individual to an organization, standards and rules become more complex and more formal. When activities become more complex, instinctive and institutional patterns of behaviour forming the basis of personal risk management become inadequate and decisions become more complicated. The theory of risk has been a subject dealt with in many available books by domestic and foreign authors and risk management as such has been a subject of detail research. We can even claim it constitutes an independent part of the theory of economy.  

Title of article: The Risk Analysis in Public Passenger Transport
Authors: Miloš Poliak, Štefánia Semanová, Katarína Kilianová
Abstract: The paper deals with the risks related to providing public passenger transport. The risks are divided into two groups: cost and revenue risks. The paper describes possibilities of risk allocation among contracting parties when providing transport services.

Title of article: Possible Repair Methods of Concrete Retaining Wall
Authors: Nicolas Saliba, Ladislav Bartuška
Abstract: Concrete and reinforced concrete retaining walls in terms of proposal and workmanship in comparison with many other structures can be considered less demanding. Unfortunately, this fact does not apply every time and we have to solve compromise proposals for remediation. Calculation of load would also not be problematic even for less ambitious structural engineer. Also, design principles, and most simple form should not bother anyone. The ways of remediation described in this article can be applied to other concrete structures, whether they are retaining walls and noise barriers along roads or railways.

Title of article: Measuring the Braking Distance in Dependence from the Momentary Vehicle Weight
Authors: Branislav Šarkan, Lukáš Holeša, Peter Ivánek
Abstract: The braking distance is one of the most important features of the braking system of a vehicle during its operation. The distance depends on many factors related to technical part of the vehicle, road surface or the driver. This paper focuses on the examination of the impact of the momentary weight of the vehicle on its braking distance. It aims at explaining the issue through practical tests and drawing conclusions for further research and practical application in expert activities.

Title of article: The Application of Automatic Identification Technologies by the Czech Post
Authors: Daniel Zeman, Petra Juránková, Libor Švadlenka
Abstract: This article deals with the question of practical use of automatic identification technologies in postal sector, with special focus on using barcode technologies and radio frequency identification in Czech Post. After introductory section, which is aimed at description of current situation and analysis of crucial factors of choosing automatic identification technologies, there are subchapters discussing the theoretical base of both technologies, as well as their practical use in postal sector. In the part of practical application of both identification technologies is specified the basic structure of barcodes used by Czech Post and also the description of international project UNEX, which deals with the measurement of the quality aspects of selected postal products and services. Concluding part contains a brief outline of possible radio frequency identification technology application.

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